1. Introduction to carbon cycle, carbon peak and carbon saturation
The carbon cycle refers to the phenomenon that carbon elements are exchanged in the earth's biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere, and continue to cycle with the movement of the earth. The carbon cycle in the biosphere is mainly manifested in the fact that green plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, convert it into glucose through photosynthesis and release oxygen with the participation of water, and organisms reuse glucose to synthesize other organic compounds. Organic compounds are passed through the food chain and become part of other organisms such as animals and bacteria. Part of the carbohydrates in the organism is used as energy for the organism's metabolism to be oxidized into carbon dioxide and water through respiration, and the energy stored in it is released.
Energy consumption continues to increase, carbon dioxide emissions continue to increase, and the atmospheric greenhouse effect and its impact are becoming more and more serious. Carbon peak is to control the total amount of carbon dioxide emissions and no longer increase, and put forward a carbon dioxide maximum limit control target. Carbon neutralization is to achieve the carbon balance control goal that the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed and converted is the same as the amount of carbon dioxide emitted. China is committed to achieving a carbon peak in 2030 and achieving carbon neutrality in 2060.
2. Overview of the source and destination of CO2
During the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can be completely renewed every 20 years. Most of the carbon in nature is stored in crustal rocks. The carbon in the rocks is decomposed by various natural and man-made chemical effects and then enters the atmosphere and oceans. At the same time, dead organisms and various other carbonaceous materials are continuously deposited. The form of matter returns to the earth’s crust, thus forming part of the global carbon cycle. The geobiochemical cycle of carbon controls the migration of carbon between sediments on or near the surface and the atmosphere, biosphere, and ocean.
The basic process of the natural carbon cycle is as follows: carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is absorbed by plants on the land and ocean, and then returned to the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide through biological or geological processes and human activities.
3. Recommended CO2 related monitoring equipment
1. Soil CO2 monitoring
1.1 Long-term monitoring of CO2 in soil
SS-GB04 Soil Profile Respiration Gradient Observation System:
1.2 Monitoring of soil respiration and soil carbon flux
eosFD soil carbon flux measurement system:
2. CO2 monitoring in water
SS-GB04 Water Carbon Dioxide CO2 Observation System:
3. CO2 monitoring in indoor environment
MX1102A wireless temperature and humidity carbon dioxide recorder:
4. CO2 monitoring in outdoor environment
WS-MC02 scientific research grade automatic weather station (compatible with multiple CO2 sensors):
5. CO2 exchange at the ground-air interface (CO2 flux study)
OPEC open-circuit eddy (eddy covariance) flux observation system (can monitor the underlying surface of grassland, farmland, water surface, forest, etc.)