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Fast Fluorometer FL 3500-F


The Fast Fluorometer FL 3500-F has multiple novel features, first of all the time resolution of 1 μs, that enable combining PAM measurements with fast kinetic measurements of OJIP and of flash fluorescence induction. 

The core of the instrument is the measuring optical head containing a standard cuvette for sample suspensions (10 x 10 mm base, up to 4 ml of internal volume). The measuring head is supplied with three sets of light-emitting diodes and a PIN diode detector with 500 kHz/16-bit AD converter. Gain and integration time of the converter are software controlled. The detector can measure Chl-fluorescence signal with time resolution up to 1 μs. The instrument has two input channels.

The Fluorometer is supplied with three, optionally four, sets of light-emitting diodes that generate: 

  • Measuring flashes, typically 2-5 μs long. Standard color: red-orange, λmax=617 nm, or blue, λmax=455 nm.

  • Single-turnover saturating flashes, typically 20-50 μs long. Standard color: red, λmax=630 nm.

  • Continuous actinic light. The maximum intensity is 2,500 μmol(photons).m-2.s-1. Standard color: red, λmax=630 nm, or blue, λmax=455 nm.

  • Additional far-red light (λmax=735 nm) for Photosystem I excitation (optional).

Light intensities and timing are software controlled separately for each LED set. The data are processed and the instrument is controlled by the FluorWin software (Windows 95/98/2000/XP compatible). As an option, the customer can also choose light-emitting diodes of different wavelengths. Contact PSI for your specific needs.

The instrument capacity can be enhanced by accurate temperature regulation provided by the PSI Thermoregulator andMagnetic Stirrer

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