The Fast Fluorometer FL 3500-F has multiple novel features, first of all the time resolution of 1 µs, that enable combining PAM measurements with fast kinetic measurements of OJIP and of flash fluorescence induction. Minimum detection limit is 1 µg Chla/l. Maximum detection limit depends on used protocol, it is approximatelly 26 mg Chla/l.
The core of the instrument is the measuring optical head containing a standard cuvette for sample suspensions (10 x 10 mm base, up to 4 ml of internal volume). The measuring head is supplied with three sets of light-emitting diodes and a PIN diode detector with 500 kHz/16-bit AD converter. Gain and integration time of the converter are software controlled. The detector can measure Chl-fluorescence signal with time resolution up to 1 µs. The instrument has two input channels.
The Fluorometer is supplied with three, optionally four, sets of light-emitting diodes that generate:
Measuring flashes, typically 2-5 µs long. Standard color: red-orange, λmax=617 nm and blue, λmax=455 nm.
Single-turnover saturating flashes, typically 20-50 µs long. Standard color: red, λmax=630 nm (optionally blue λmax=455 nm; just one color possible for single-turnover saturating flashes).
Continuous actinic light. The maximum intensity is 3,000 µmol(photons).m-2.s-1. Standard color: red, λmax=630 nm (optionally blue λmax=455 nm; just one color possible for continuous actinic light).
Additional far-red light (λmax=735 nm) for Photosystem I excitation (optional).
Fluorometer FL 3500 Light Scheme / Spectral Characteristics
Light intensities and timing are software controlled separately for each LED set. The data are processed and the instrument is controlled by the FluorWin software (Windows 95/98/2000/XP compatible). As an option, the customer can also choose light-emitting diodes of different wavelengths. Contact PSI for your specific needs.
Detection limit 1 µg Chla/l
Four sets of light-emitting diodes – measuring light blue, measuring light red, single-turnover saturating light red, actinic light red
Light intensities and timings are software controlled separately for each LED set with 100 ns resolution
PIN photodiode detector with 40x variable gain for signal acquisition with 1MHz/16-bit maximum accuracy
The instrument capacity can be enhanced by accurate temperature regulation provided by the PSI Thermoregulator and Magnetic Stirrer
Measured Fluorescence Parameters:
F0, FM, FV, F’0, F’M, F’V, FT
620 nm and 460 nm in standard versions; other wavelengths available as an option
Super Pulse Irradiance:
Around 80,000 µmol(photon).m-2.s-1 - adjustable from 0 to maximum
Actinic Light Irradiance:
Up to 3,000 µmol(photon).m-2.s-1
Custom Defined Protocols:
Variable timing, special language and scripts
A/D Bit Resolution:
Detector time response:
1 µs in FL 3500-F
4 µs in FL 3500-S
29 x 20 x 11 cm (Control Box)
Diameter 16 cm, height 6 cm (SuperHead Measuring Unit)
90 - 240 V
1 year parts and labor